By R. M. R. Lewis

This booklet treats graph colouring as an algorithmic challenge, with a robust emphasis on functional functions. the writer describes and analyses a number of the best-known algorithms for colouring arbitrary graphs, concentrating on even if those heuristics offers optimum options often times; how they practice on graphs the place the chromatic quantity is unknown; and whether or not they can produce larger suggestions than different algorithms for specific sorts of graphs, and why.

The introductory chapters clarify graph colouring, and limits and positive algorithms. the writer then indicates how complicated, sleek suggestions will be utilized to vintage real-world operational examine difficulties resembling seating plans, activities scheduling, and college timetabling. He contains many examples, feedback for extra interpreting, and historic notes, and the e-book is supplemented through an internet site with a web suite of downloadable code.

The e-book might be of worth to researchers, graduate scholars, and practitioners within the parts of operations study, theoretical laptop technological know-how, optimization, and computational intelligence. The reader must have undemanding wisdom of units, matrices, and enumerative combinatorics.

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Extra resources for A Guide to Graph Colouring: Algorithms and Applications

Example text

Hence any chordal graph can be recognised and coloured optimally in polynomial time. 2 Upper Bounds Upper bounds on the chromatic number are often derived by considering the degrees of vertices in a graph. For instance, when a graph has a high density (that is, a high proportion of vertex pairs that are neighbouring), often a larger number of colours will be needed because a greater proportion of the vertex pairs will need to be separated into different colour classes. This admittedly rather weak-sounding proposal gives rise to the following theorem.

5(a) in this section shows ten taxi journeys corresponding to ten intervals over the real line (representing time in this case). 5(b). One feature of interval graphs are that they are known to contain a “perfect elimination ordering”. This is defined as an ordering of the vertices such that, for every vertex, all of its neighbours to the left of it in the ordering form a clique. 3 Every interval graph G has a perfect elimination ordering. Proof. To start, arrange the intervals of I in ascending order of start values, such that a1 ≤ a2 ≤ .

As illustrated, this grid can be coloured using four colours according to the pattern shown. In this graph each vertex, together with the vertex above, the vertex on the right, and the vertex on the upper diagonal right, forms a clique of size four. Hence we can conclude that a feasible colouring using fewer than four colours does not exist. The dense grid graph also provides a simple example of a graph that is nonplanar but is still 4-colourable. Although cliques of size 4 are themselves planar, the nature by which the various cliques interlock in this example means that some edges will always need to cross one another.

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