By David L Thurmond

Rome was once in a position to aid an important city inhabitants via offering it with the rudiments of human meals within the type of processed meals. This quantity encompasses a cautious research of these nutrition techniques. The paintings is equipped at the foundation of the presumed value of these meals, starting with the so-called Mediterranean Triad of cereals (particularly wheaten bread), olive oil and wine, then facing plant items comparable to legumes, greens and culmination, then animal items, and finishing with the condiments (salts, sugars, acids, spices) that have been themselves the brokers for the protection of different meals. The paintings combines research of literary and archaeological proof from antiquity with that of conventional comparative practices and glossy nutrients technology.

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Press, 1967): 152–56 and Figs. 114–17. 21 22 cereals 23 Roman flail, unlike its later permutation which survives in some areas to this day, was not hinged to allow the thresher to strike the grain from a nearly upright position such that the lower portion strikes the grain along its whole length. 26 On the other hand, the use of draft animals in threshing is as old as agriculture itself and is still used in isolated parts of the Mediterranean. Basically the animals are simply turned out onto the threshing floor and led about until the friction of their hooves has removed sufficiently the chaff.

Columella21 recommends it be paved with hard stones so that the beating hooves of the draft animals or the threshing sledges can operate more efficiently. Doubtless such threshing floors ran the gamut from simple cleared hilltops to elaborate constructions. 22 The threshing floor of the villa of San Giovanni di Ruoti, for example, is ideally situated to catch the breezes used in winnowing. That at the Villa Pompeiana della Pisanella near Pompeii was large, elevated and nicely paved. It seems to have been slightly sloped to allow for quick drainage to cisterns and was again well sited to receive the winds.

John Troller and J. H. B. Christian, Water Activity and Food (New York: Academic Press, 1978): 55. 73. All translations of the agronomists in this work are those of the Harvard Loeb series, unless otherwise noted. chapter one 26 The causes of the keeping power of grains are several: either in the husk of the grain itself when it is multiple, as in millet, or in the oil content ( pinguitudo) of the juice which suffices in itself instead of moisture (“qui pro umore sufficiat tantum”) as in sesame, or in the bitterness of the juice as in lupine and chickling vetch.

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