By Trevor I. Williams

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Extra info for A History of Technology. Volume VII, The Twentieth Century, c. 1900 to c. 1950. Part II

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11. Arendal, Norway. yards so fully engaged those in the industry that there was little time for serious thought on new shipyards. In western Europe, and Scandinavia in particular, entirely new shipyards were built by long-established, well-known, successful companies. Fig. 11 shows the layout of Gotaverken’s shipyard at Arendal, Norway. This shipyard introduced the conveyor-belt system of shipbuilding in which the fabricated sections, each weighing up to 300 tons, are conveyed gradually from the fabricating hall and along the building dock as each section is completed and added to the hull section immediately preceding it.

Although a solution w'as found by contraction of capacity, 752 SHIPS AND S HI P B UI L DI NG S HI P B U I L D I NG F ig . S. H o o d , a battle cruiser o f 41000 tons displacement, completed in 1923, and sunk by the Germ an battleship B i s m a r k in May 1941. what was really needed were more modern shipyards; more orders for modern ships; and new methods of working. The world economic stagnation in the early 1930s led to pessimism about the future of shipbuilding and in 1933 the level of unemployment in the industry rose to 63 per cent.

Most large shipyards now use manual methods of welding fillets but sub­ merged and open-arc machines are used for the welding of seams and butts. Approximately 10 per cent of all metal deposited is carried out by automatic or semi-automatic machines and this figure is continually increasing. Gravity fillet-welding machines are used to deposit weld material simultaneously on both sides of stiffeners to meet the increasing demand for faster speeds of welding. One-side welding is being developed and complete depth penetra­ tion is being obtained.

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