By Prof. J. Schmoelling (auth.), S. Beilke, A. J. Elshout (eds.)

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Read or Download Acid Deposition: Proceedings of the CEC Workshop organized as part of the Concerted Action “Physico-Chemical Behaviour of Atmospheric Pollutants”, held in Berlin, 9 September 1982 PDF

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Additional resources for Acid Deposition: Proceedings of the CEC Workshop organized as part of the Concerted Action “Physico-Chemical Behaviour of Atmospheric Pollutants”, held in Berlin, 9 September 1982

Sample text

Introduction The acid properties of natural waters are usually defined by pHvalues. Sometimes these values are obtained by measurement in situ. In other cases the pH is measured after the sample has been brought to the laboratory. Normally these two types of measurement give rather different results. It is also commonly recognized that a pH-value alone gives very incomplete information on the acid properties of a natural water. Better information may, however, be obtained if the measurements are focused on those parameters which determine the relevant pH and not only on the pH-value itself.

Since the main fraction of NH4 remaining in the ecosystem is transferred to organic bound nitrogen, this means that the cation acid NH4 reacts completely forming an equivalent amount of protons. According to the input/output balance (last row), from the acidity received only 18 % (beech) and 5 % (spruce) are buffered in the ecosystem down to 1 m soil depth. The main fraction of the acidity deposited passes through the ecosystem and will acidify seepage conductors or ground and spring waters. This situation must be expected for all ecosystems where the soil has lost the exchangeable basic cations to a percentage of less than 5 to 10 % of the cation exchange capacity.

7) -45 - B is volatile k' ..... (8) B ..... (9) Addition of the acids HA. , nonvolatile or volatile, to water, generates in it the'fo110wing hydroge~ ion concentration: [H+J == L [Ai] - L (10) [BiH+J + [OH-] For the [H+J -range 10- 3 - 10- 5 mole 1- 1 three cases have to be discussed. 1) In eq. (2) and in eq. (6) [HAJ T ~ [A-] [BH+h ~ [BH+] Such acids and bases obviously behave here as strong, and will be denominated HAS and BS' respectively. 2) In eq. (2) [HA]aq and [A-] and in eq. (6) [BH+J and [B]aq are of the same order of magnitude, respectively.

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