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The amount of these products is small when the fuel burn-up is low, particularly the amount of curium, but the yields become significant as the burn-up increases, for fuel irradiated in fast reactors or when Pu is used in PWR-MOX fuel. These elements are of particular concern for long-term waste management because their half-lives are very long. Other chemical compounds that exist or are added to the HLW prior to the conditioning process, such as vitrification, are for example soluble poisons (gadolinium), additives (sugar), alkaline solutions for neutralisation of acidity and metal fines from dissolution process.
Being dominated by the fission products, the volume of the high-level waste will, however, not be noticeably affected by this reduction. x Due to the higher efficiency of fast reactors, a change from an all-LWR to an all-FR reactor strategy reduces the fission product mass, and hence the high-level waste volume, by about 30%. x Only transmutation strategies with fully-closed fuel cycles can meet the hundredfold TRU reduction goal of P&T. Partially-closed fuel cycles, which cannot achieve such high TRU reductions but are easier to implement, are also useful for managing plutonium and minor actinides.
Standard 200 litres steel drums). A less common technology involves mixing of evaporate with bitumen in extruder mixers. Volume reduction factors depend on the salinity of the waste and are typically expressed as content of salts in the final product (usually 4050%). The leaching properties of this waste form are generally better then those of cemented waste. g. nitrates) in the waste. , from reinforced concrete, where several drums with bituminised waste are placed in the repository and free space is filled with cement grout or another filling .
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