By Alton Meister

A continual authoritative sequence reviewing examine into enzymology and similar parts of molecular biology. offers six papers through prime experts.

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Extra resources for Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology, Volume 55

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In order to act as substrate, the chalcone requires an unhindered B-ring hydroxyl group [unlike the enzyme from P. vulgaris (183)] and the 4’ position must be glycosylated via @-linkedneohesperidose (1 85). Chemical models for the synthesis of isoflavonoids have predicted direct formation of isoflavones from chalcones (1 86,187), and this would imply n o direct role for CHI in the synthesis of isoflavonoid phytoalexins. The enzyme does, however, increase in activity in Clycine m a following infection by Phytophthora megasperma fspglycinea (1 12), and in Phaseolus vulgaris cell suspension cultures treated with biotic (188) or abiotic (1 14) elicitors.

LAMB dent regulation of the 5-hydroxy and 5-deoxy pathways is also indirectly suggested by the different time courses for the appearance of 5-hydroxy and 5-deoxy classes of isoflavonoid in wounded cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris (1 17). To date there has been no report of the direct characterization of a 6'-deoxy CHS in a cell-free system, although it has been suggested that formation of 5-deoxy isoflavonoids may be catalyzed by an enzyme system in some ways analogous to the 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase from Penicillium patulum.

For example, pulse-labeling experiments in Cicer arietinum have clearly demonstrated that the levels of the isoflavone formononetin (XVI)and the flavanol kaempferol can be regulated via increases or decreases in their turnover rates (2 17,218), and studies on the metabolism of the isoflavone daidzein (XIX)exogenously supplied to cell suspension cultures of Phaseolus aureus have shown the operation of pathways of degradation, polymerization, glucosylation, and further metabolism to coumestrol (XV) (219,220).

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