By Jairus Banaji

The economic system of the overdue vintage Mediterranean remains to be mostly noticeable in the course of the prism of Weber's influential essay of 1896. Rejecting that orthodoxy, Jairus Banaji argues that the overdue empire observed gigantic financial and social switch, propelled via the robust stimulus of a strong gold coinage that circulated commonly. In successive chapters Banaji adduces clean proof for the prosperity of the past due Roman nation-state, the increasing stream of gold, the restructuring of agrarian élites, and the huge use of paid labour, specially within the interval spanning the 5th to 7th centuries. The papyrological facts is scrutinized intimately to teach key improvement entailed the increase of a brand new aristocracy whose estates have been resistant to the devastating fragmentation of partible inheritance, greatly irrigated, and conscious of marketplace possibilities. A concluding bankruptcy defines the extra basic factor raised via the aristocracy's involvement within the financial and enterprise economic climate of the interval.

Exploiting a variety of resources, Agrarian swap in overdue Antiquity weaves jointly varied strands of historiography (Weber, Mickwitz, papyrology, agrarian background) right into a interesting interpretation that demanding situations the minimalist orthodoxies approximately past due antiquity and the traditional economic system extra generally.

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11 litres of wine. 3 litres). Both wine jars have a date range in the 7th cent. (see M. Egloff, Kellia. La poterie copte. Quatres siècles d’artisanat et d’échanges en Basse-Égypte, 2 vols. 114–15), but the Upper Egyptian provenance of the former may make it a more likely candidate. In either case, one is dealing with the famous ‘carrot-shaped’ wine containers which are ‘regularly present in small quantities’ in the excavations at Saraçane in Istanbul, J. W. Hayes, Excavations at Saraçhane in Istanbul (Princeton, 1992) 2.

De Goeje (Leiden, 1866) 91 = Description de l’Afrique et de l’Espagne par Edrîsî. Texte arabe publiée pour la première fois . . avec une traduction, des notes et un glossaire, tr. R. Dozy and M. J. de Goeje (Leiden, 1866) 106–7. Qal< a (of the Beni Hammâd) lay further south, in the Hodna region, cf. 25 (Msila), 92. Idrîsî describes it as ‘adossée à une grande montagne qui la domine et qui est entourée de tous côtés par les murailles de la ville’ (p. 107). The site is described in Playfair, Handbook for Travellers in Algeria and Tunis, 251.

L. Johnson and L. E. Stager, ‘Ashkelon: Wine Emporium of the Holy Land’, in S. ), Recent Excavations in Israel (Boston, 1995) 95 ff. ) 87 Villeneuve, ‘L’économie rurale’, 123 f. 88 See n. 3 above. 89 See Catalogue, Fayum 7c. 90 W. A. , ‘Excavations at Marina el-Alamein 1987–1988’, MDAIK 46 (1990) 15–51, at 46. See M. -Y. ), Commerce et artisanat dans l’Alexandrie hellénistique et romaine. Actes du colloque d’Athènes . . 11–12 décembre 1988. BCH Supplement 33 (École Française d’Athènes, 1998) 27–36, and Feisal el-Ashmawi, ‘Pottery kiln and winefactory at Burg el-Arab’, in the same volume, 62 ff.

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