By Jose O. Pedro

The current quantity offers a accomplished realizing of the fashionable standards, types and techniques of research of arch dams, for regular operation stipulations and lower than unheard of a lot. this knowledge is critical for all these fascinated by the overview of the behaviour and of arch dams and different huge buildings, both for layout or tracking purpose.

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An appropriate modelling of the foundation, taking into account the treatment and other measures to improve the behaviour (aprons, grout curtains, cut-off walls, drainage systems), is therefore important. In the modelling of a dam, an important problem is the definition of the extent of the foundation to be incorporated in the model, and of the appropriate boundary conditions. In general, this definition will be different for hydraulic, thermal or mechanical problems, and for static or dynamic loads.

The above indicated data are a fundamental source of information to identify the major deterioration scenarios in dams, appurtenant works, and reservoirs (ICOLD 1984, 1994, Pedro 1990, 1993c, Combelles 1991). ). 0. Pedro -Loss of strength and/or watertightness of the dam body, due to overturning, cracking, shearing, sliding or solution of concrete or mortar, caused by several phenomena, such as: 1) stresses developed under normal operation conditions (particularly from actions of the water and temperature); 2) freezing and thawing for dams in cold regions; 3) chemical reactions between the material compounds, resulting in swelling (alkali-aggregate reactions, sulphate reactions); 4) shrinkage, creep, dissipation of the hydration heat, and chemical reactions leading to contraction (mainly for young concrete); 5) chemical reactions of the material compounds with elements from the environment (particularly aggressive waters from the reservoir or underground); 6) degradation of the structural elements of the dam Goints, upstream facings, prestressing devices).

The plan and cross-section of some dams mentioned above are presented in Figs. 10 and 11. Kawaji Japan, 1986 Beznar Spain, 1986 Zillergrundl Austria, 1986 0 lnguri Georgia, 1980 100 50 150m ~--------~------------~------------~ Fig. 10- Large arch dams completed after 1980 (JPCOLD 1979-1994, Technopromexport 1988, AUCOLD 1991, SPCOLD 1993) 25 Safety and Performance of Arch Dams 0 Fig. 1 - In order to fulfil the behaviour requirements during their whole lifetime, arch dams, like other structures, should be appropriately designed, constructed, and operated.

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