By William McCain

This version expands its scope as a with ease prepared petroleum fluids reference ebook for the training petroleum engineer and an authoritative university textual content.

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A variety of products, whose boiling points and hydrocarbon composition are closely controlled, are produced for use as these materials. They include benzene, toluene, and xylene. Many products derived from crude oil refining, such as ethylene, propylene, butylene, and isobutylene, are primarily intended for use as petrochemical feedstock in the production of plastics, synthetic fibers, synthetic rubbers, and other products. Special refining processes produce lubricating-oil base stocks. Additives such as demulsifiers, antioxidants, and viscosity improvers are blended into the base stocks to provide the characteristics required for motor oils, industrial greases, lubricants, and cutting oils.

And overhead from H2S, HCl, and water. Where sour crudes are processed, severe corrosion can occur in furnace tubing and in both atmospheric and vacuum towers where metal temperatures exceed 450 F. Wet H2S also will cause cracks in steel leading to spills, leaks, and fugitive emissions. When processing high-nitrogen crudes, nitrogen oxides can form in the flue gases of furnaces. Nitrogen oxides are corrosive to steel when cooled to low temperatures in the presence of water. Aging refineries that have been in service for decades have fugitive emissions from these sources that the authors do not believe are adequately accounted for.

Other solvents used are liquid sulfur dioxide, nitrobenzene, and 2,20 -dichloroethyl ether. The selection of specific processes and chemical agents depends on the nature of the feedstock being treated, the contaminants present, and the finished product requirements. 19. 19 Simple schematic of aromatics extraction. 5 Solvent dewaxing Solvent dewaxing is used to remove wax from distillate or residual base stocks at any stage in the refining process. While there are several solvent dewaxing processes all have the same general steps: 1.

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