By I.G. Richards, J.P. Palmer and P.A. Barratt (Eds.)

. This ebook , the results of experiences undertaken on behalf of the eu fee, examines the present 'state of the paintings' recommendations for the recovery of despoiled lands bobbing up from the coal and metal industries. It offers technical -guidance to assist the method of the regeneration of the coat and metal groups of Europe. The chapters are absolutely go referenced within the textual content, and the place extra technical or clinical element is equipped, this has been put into containers instead of mainly textual content. The e-book may be of significant curiosity to environmental scientists and engineers, and to all those people who are thinking about mining,, mineral waste. soil toxins and, waste administration and disposal.

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Example text

In 1993, coal was only produced in Lorraine, and these remaining mines are scheduled for closure by the year 2005. The French steel industry was based in Lorraine, where it utilised local iron ores. Although the iron ore mines have closed and steel production in France has declined, steel is still produced, and in 1993 France was the third largest producer in the EC. 4. The Netherlands The coal industry in the Netherlands dates from the Middle Ages. Coal extraction took place mainly in the south in the Limburg province.

Coal .............................. ... ............. ... .... ... ...... 10000 ............ .. .. .. ............. .. .. .. . . . . . . I ..................................... .. .. .. .. ............... .. .. I. l 5000 rn l ......................... ... .................. ..... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1: (projected) World electricity production by fuel (after IEA Coal Research, 1992lZ3) 4 lNTRODUC JlON utilisation, the number of deep mines in the European Community has fallen considerably.

12 The scale and nature of dereliction . . . . . . . 12 Ikreliction in individual countries . . . . . . . 13 Future trends . . . . . . . . . The stimulus for reclamation . . . Reclamation strategy . . . . . . . The experience of reclamation in Wales ........ 22 . . . . . 23 ........ 24 . . . . 1 Coal Coal was the fuel on which the industrial revolution of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was based, and it is still an important primary energy source.

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